NEST House by Gerardo Ars Arquitectura

Designed for a retired couple and their growing family who longed for a refuge that would offer respire from the city, with ample spaces for recreation and gardening. The inspiration for this house emerged between the combinations of two cultures; Chiapas, the state where the couple were born, and Veracruz a city they love and have built a life for themselves and their children.

The house is located on a hill, in a gated community “Playas del conchal” with an exceptional view of the Gulf of Mexico in the town of Alvarado, Veracruz. Mexico.
The plot is very regular with an interesting drop of 1.2 m from side to side and front to back, which led us to design a gradual change in the levels seeking a delicate flow between the spaces on the first floor. The idea was that the gardens surround the house, so the living room, dining room, and guest bedroom offers a view of them.

While entering the house is impossible not to see a dividing wall (coral wall) between the living room and the dining room, inspired by a coral that grows from floor to the ceiling, which references one of the dividing walls of the first houses that couple lived when they were young, located in the city of Tuxtla Gutierrez Chiapas

Security and privacy without sacrificing the privileged view were the most important requirements made by the owners, so we developed on the second floor an irregular layout that ensured a good view from multiple direction so that the master bedroom can see the sunrise and the sea while the other two bedrooms have views to the landscape.

The sun and the wind were important factors to consider during the design process because Veracruz is a very windy city. The facade of the second floor is wrapped with a screen of perforated concrete that flows with the form of the house that acts as a filter, ensuring the occupants privacy and safety also helps to reduce the wind and the heat gain.

The design of the Screen pays tribute to an abstract interpretation of traditional textiles made by the indigenous community of Chiapas, with repetitive geometric shapes. The pattern designed to look like random provides those inside an unnoticeable look of what’s going on outside at the same time allowing daylight to wash the interior of the balcony and the bedrooms creating a luminous atmosphere and an interface between interior and exterior.

The owners are hammocks lovers, so we designed a rooftop terrace with a special covered area for hammocks, the holes of the roof are not just for aesthetics but also were made by the shape of “pumpos” a typical fruit of Chiapas, so when the family enjoy the hammocks could remember a bit of its culture.

This is a house that manages to embrace and reinterpret the culture, as well as addressing modernity and the requirements of contemporary living with meticulous design resolutions.

LOCATION: Alvarado, Veracruz, Mexico.
DATE: Design: 2012. Completed: 2013
ARCHITECTS: Gerardo Ars Arquitectura.
PHOTOGRAPHY: Gerardo Robles.
AREA: Land: 290 m2. Constructed area: 285 m2
STRUCTURAL: Ing. Carlos Caballero
MATERIALS: Concrete and aluminum.
COMPOSITION: Gerardo Robles

Libertad 196 by Gerardo Ars Arquitectura

Two houses built on a topographically hilly plot with a slope of 4 meters at the highest point; the project is located in the town of Boca del Rio, at the Port of Veracruz.
The houses of minimal spaces were designed as a modern and functional alternative intended for young families. With 120m2 and 130m2 each, the idea was to take advantage of the extra spaces, such as above the doors and down the aisles, as storage spaces and services, also the stairs were placed above the parking lot to maximize space.
The houses were designed to make the most of the sloping topography of the land, the activities of the houses were developed on platforms at different heights, this genre that each house had a double semi height, staying in the ground floor the living room at one level and the kitchen and dining room to another level by giving it a dynamism space.
Upstairs are the bedrooms connected by a corridor with small windows and planters, this serves as a sunscreen, giving better thermal sensation inside the bedrooms as well as privacy.
The climatic conditions of the area played a role in the arrangement of the houses, being perpendicular to the street for the minimum direct radiation from the sun, therefore parking and stairs are placed on the side of the street, as a filter for heat.
By client’s requirement, the view to the outside is to green areas and a vertical garden and not to the street, providing privacy and security for residents.
At first glance seem identical houses, but to go into them, roam around and you will notice that each competes for identity, one of the major differences between them is the roof garden that was made in the house of the background, to give you a bonus and use the fifth facade (roof), which commonly is ignored and on this occasion was used as a space for recreation taking advantage the climate of the area.

name: Libertad 196
location: Boca del Rio, Veracruz, México.
date: project: 2011. Construction: 2012
architects: Gerardo Ars Arquitectura.
team: Design: Gerardo Ars.
photography: Gerardo Ars.
area: Plot: 250 m2. Constructed area: 250 m2
structural: Ing. Carlos Caballero
materials: Concrete and aluminium.


Three House by Gerardo ArsArquitectura

Built on an irregular land of 7 by 19 meters approximately, located in the town of Boca del Rio, at the Port of Veracruz.
“The house is for our children” phrase essential and inspiring of the client that served as the basis for the development of the project.
Based on the concerns and needs of a family consisting of father, mother and three children.
The house is composed of three orthogonal modules in which they are developed the program of activities, taking as well on the ground floor public area/private; access, parking, living-dining room, kitchen, master bedroom and on a high floor only the private area, with the rooms of the children distributed per module.

The environment and its geographical situation potentiated the utilization of the climatic conditions, which led to generate optimal ventilation spaces to ensure that the interior of the house remained fresh and bright without detracting from its architectural qualities.

Features such as “privacy and security” were necessary due to its location, resulting in a design that provides the feeling of confinement and protection of the user toward the outside, and whose form reflects the tangled of the typologies of surrounding housing according to the urban growth of the area.

And finally the more showy and striking aspect of this project, its facade, which seeks to combine as if it were a “lattice” the personalities who are extroverted and introverted children, reflecting the brotherly coexistence between them, which leads to describe this as a housing project with authentic personality, daring and bold, without leaving aside the close relationship of the customers who live with their needs.

name: Three House
location: Boca del Rio, Veracruz, Mexico.
date: project: 2013. Construction: 2014
architects: Gerardo ArsArquitectura.
team: design: Gerardo Ars.
photography: Gerardo Ars.
area: Land: 142 m2. Constructed area: 220 m2
structural: Ing. Carlos Caballero
materials: Concreto armado y aluminio.
composition: Gladys Chavero Villeda


CCD by AT 103 Julio Amezcua + Francisco Pardo

The Digital Culture Center is located in the basement of the Estela de Luz, on Paseo de la Reforma. The center has an area of 3000 sqm divided into two levels.

Under the request of CONACULTA, we sketched a center where all citizens could have access to new technologies and artistic expressions derived from the digital world.

The program includes a movie theater for 120 people-being an extension of the National Film-, a multipurpose area for performing arts, a digital showroom with an interactive LED screen, a memorial room, bar, cafeteria, offices and services area.

CONACULTA’s motto made us work within a short schedule and reduced cost, thus working with a design strategy that wouldn’t infringe the existing anatomy of the place.

At the first level the program is ordered by uses, contained by a constructive line that exerts the hierarchy level of privacy and space through the interplay of different materials and their opacity, glass to wood, and then into a digital LED display of 15 meters long by 2.20m high. At the second level, the constructive line begins to blur, but not before containing part of the program and emphasizing the multipurpose area for performing arts.

Thus the Estela de Luz, the classic anthropomorphic monument dedicated to contemplation becomes a living monument for the recreational use of families, children, youth and adults, breaking the traditional mold of no interaction between the idea of monument and livability.

In the CCD, the space emphasizes a vision for the future, contextualizing and understanding the current landscape of the city, integrating new emerging technologies, creating a space full of interactive systems that meet the changing needs of the individual and social developmental demands.

Project: Centro de Cultura Digital CCD
Architect: AT 103 Julio Amezcua + Francisco Pardo
Design team: Karen Burkard, Alan Orozco
Production team: Jose Luis Fajardo, Luis Guisar, Gabriela Terán, Tommy Tonatiuh, Aaron Rivera
Location: Ciudad de México
Year: 2012
M2: 2,400
Photography: Adam Wiseman


Caché | Architectural Coverings by Factor:Recurso

Located east of Centrito Valle, in San Pedro Garza García, NL, Caché Architectural Coverings aims to offer an exclusive experience in selecting and consulting design finishes.

The renovated showroom concept identifies the phenomenological aspects that influence the process of decision-making and aims to materialize the necessary circumstances to promote a kinesthetic experience, maximizing the relationship between product and customer.

It immerses the user in a continuous path and surface selection process through an interface of information organized in particular units (pixels) of material on a consistent line of sight.

The voluntary absence of brands democratizes the product range offer, providing choice in relation to the strict identification of design elements that characterize the products, such as texture, shape, color tone/value/saturation, line, and pattern. The model is replicated throughout the space, exposing the user to patterns or drawings with a specific intention of classification and countless graphic possibilities.

This intelligent, interactive and dynamic collection incites a comparative grab n ‘go process. Visualization, comparison and product selection is supported by a continuous lectern and horizontal work surfaces that shelter the life-size samples of the products for further detailed inspection.

The result is a sober and elegant atmosphere, which focuses attention on the visual properties of the finishes. The exhibition space is complemented with a lounge area. Decorative finishes such as blinds or reliefs are located on movable totems that can be transported through space and different lighting qualities to form part of the selection process.

Project: Caché | Architectural Coverings
Architects: Factor:Recurso
Team in charge: Rodney Robles, Mónica Mora, Julia Pizaña, Gerardo Lan, Rodolfo

Collaboration: Mariana Maciel.
Branding: Stelier.
Photographs: © Carlos Rodríguez Garrido
Year: 2014
Area: 340 m2
Location: San Pedro Garza García, MX
Typology: Showroom.
Mexico; 2014


Casa López/Lujano by Oficina 3 Estudio de Arquitectura

A medium size lot with hillside slopes. The house opens to the southwest, making solar control a serious challenge for this project.

The owners were very concerned about the environment, specifically about energy and resource efficiency. They wanted to maintain their privacy, but also directed us to provide an open, light-filled design, that responded to the hillside site. The owners also wanted a more controlled garden-type of an area and a more natural landscape on the rear of the lot. Sensible green measures were to be included, although the project budget would not allow “Grand” measures.

The design response in this built project, as stated by the owners, is to untie their co-dependence on external energy supplies, will self-provide power with solar energy, gray water will be re-used, the natural controlled garden acts as a Rainwater-Harvesting System, to be used for growing vegetables and other plants.

To preserve privacy, bring in light while minimizing unwanted solar heat gain, and provide connection to nature, we oriented a large window wall north to the back yard, sloping the ceiling of the great room up to increase the light and connection to nature in that space. The sloping roof also provides a surface suitable for mounting the 13.4 kW PV system. Other building faces have smaller, punched windows that maximize light as well as privacy.
The following points were taking in to consideration as basic concepts to our design.

The most important thing about this waste is how well made it is. Mostly because it is mass-produced for conditions in industrial automation.
Affordability By direct use of this components determined waste from other industries lower cost of raw materials, and provides the building project with an aesthetic determined by the physical properties of materials in its natural found state. The effectiveness of these techniques depends on the capacity of the separation of recoverable waste ensure maximum recovery of the material. Therefore, this residual waste generated from post-industrial process, can be applied directly or may be subjected to some form of manipulation or treatment.
Recovery + Logistics + Application = Re-used

Number concrete structural rings responsible for the transmission of loads to the floor, joined by a concrete foundation slab and roof; define the site-built CMU inner structure.
The combination of three primary elements defines the morphology of these building; the architectural pieces or building components are incorporated as walls, linings and envelope or skin, this latter, an important part of the inner workings of the house. The envelope (skin) is the outer layer mediating between the building and its surroundings.

By Continuous control of usage of resources. We took upon the fabrication of this wooden skin membrane, constructed mainly by refurbished wood used in prior in construction process, and wood discarded from local factories, aided by a lattice of perforated metal around its surface both act as thermal barrier. This boundary also includes the boundary between conditioned and limit the friction between the building and a changing context over time.

Creative Team:
Oficina 3 Estudio de Arquitectura:
Omar Bernal M.
Daniel Carrillo García
Structural Engineer:
Becerra + Nuñez Engineering

Mechanical Engineer: O3 Energy Group
Location: Tijuana, Baja California, México
Year: 2013


KitchenAid Boutique by Tékne

Create a new boutique concept for the brand, based on the experience of different environments within the same space, but without losing the unity between them. the proposed route very different from the concept store, because they provoke feelings, instead of only displaying products in line. Displayed each space represents a kind of space depending on the product to sell, but it exhibits in its real context.

The first thing is that we should identify the product to sell. In this case it is an appliance. the question was how to create spaces to be easily identifiable this article and not get lost in a world overloaded with things and above all without falling into a traditional exhibition, where only hundreds of devices are placed one after the other without any meaning or intention?

The second thing were different “types” of items within the same universe. ie the mark handles certain appliances, but within the same type has several models depending on market. then the question was how to separate these models within the same space, to make them identifiable, without thrashing.

From these two main ideas, we determined that both showcase the products, and to differentiate them from each other,
we have to create “environments” according to the product, generate immediate context as an excuse to showcase the product, but without losing the “naturally” in the environment.

These environments are generated by independent spaces, in this case the immediate context are the kitchens. The question was how to link these environments or kitchens, without seeming a department store, but on the contrary, the environment should “immerse” the visitor in a situation not only view, but also to touch and smell to actually transported to this space and live it.

Was therefore extremely important to choose the materials and coatings chosen according to the environment. Also the
last question of the project was how to link these spaces or environments that each one feels part of a whole and within a planned route, always starting with an overview of the local, visual and taking a shot, not to lose sight
of the goal in each environment.

The choice of materials were wood, stone slab, polished porcelain. from the entrance to the store, offers a view of almost every space, but marks a road or path, not straight, but causing the direct gaze into space where it is leading, with the partial closings each space or environment created.

The link between each environment is achieved through the wavy path, which in turn has a mirror on the ceiling, marked by indirect illumination is achieved to strengthen its silhouette.

Location: Monterrey, NL. Mexico
Date: 2011
surface: 270 sqm
Architect: Tékne, sociedad de diseño
Cosntruction. RQ arquitectos
Photographer. Francisco Peña


Cinco de Mayo Memorial by TEN Arquitectos

On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Puebla in Mexico, when the Mexicans defeated the larger and better equipped French army, the TEN Arquitectos introduced a symbolic memorial – a public space. The undulating square is situated in the Los Fuertes area of Puebla, almost on the top of the hill that overlooks the whole town. The project makes use of the existing topography and creates a wavy surface with bent wooden board, under which a cafe, playroom, and a gallery are hidden. 150 trees were planted all over the square, representing the historic anniversary. Light pillars scattered around embody military units. The memorial square has become a sought out place to meet, and enjoy local culture.


Parque de Software IJALTI by Ciudad Guzman

This project was assigned to LeAP after winning a closed invited competition. The project for the Software Park in Ciudad Guzman is part of the efforts carried by the state government in positioning the State of Jalisco as the Mexican Silicon Valley. The Park in Ciudad Guzman started some years ago without a master plan and with two small buildings around a parking lot and a security booth at the entrance. Some years later the IJALTI commissioned a new building that never was finished, at the beginning of the competition this bigger building (the C building) had its structural elements such as columns, beams and concrete slabs in place but was lacking any facade or any kind of finishing materials. Part of the objective of the competition was to propose a facade for this building and to update the distribution of spaces in order to accommodate the always changing needs of the software development companies.

When we started working in this competition the first thing we noticed was the wrongful orientation of the C building, with its largest elevations facing east and west and therefore receiving an enormous amount of solar exposure. This building was also lacking emergency stairs, with only a central elevator shaft and service stairs for the whole vertical circulation of the building. Our entry for the competition proposes a set of exterior aisles that run all along the facade, providing a space for the employees to get some fresh air, to gather in an exterior space at the same level where their working stations are and to enjoy an amazing view of the volcano that is at 10km away from the site.

At one end of each aisle we proposed an emergency stair that could perfectly function as an alternative vertical circulation for the building. To protect the building for the excessive solar radiation due to the peculiar orientation we proposed a metal skin designed to shade the interior and to let some strategic views to the volcano. This outer skin protects the interior from the sun, provides a buffer area so the radiating heat can dissipate and it permits to control the luxes inside the building in order to achieve a more comfortable working space. Since most of the architectural intervention in the C building was resting in the design of the exterior skin, we decided to design an envelope that could be eye-catching and at the same time within the technical limitations of the local builders. We invited for this part of the project a consulting firm: TAL: Torres, Arenas and Loverich to write a script for Rhino in order to solve the skin we designed using a triangular geometry. With the assistance of TAL we could design a very dynamic facade, that protects from the sun but that at the same time permits views from the interior to the Volcano, we could also control the amount of different pieces so they could be manufactured and installed without an extreme complexity that could have stopped the IJALTI to choose our design.

The master plan:
Our proposal for the master plan was based in the idea of a landscape that could evolve and expand as the IJALTI would expand the campus. The open spaces surrounding the buildings in the campus are landscaped according to their distance to the buildings, the closer these areas are to the built elements in the campus the greener they are, the spaces that are the furthest are landscaped in such a way that they do not need that much maintenance and watering. The layout of the landscaped areas and the walkways were designed using a voronoi strategy, so the areas are cells that accommodate the buildings, the walkways and the parking lot. One of the benefits of a cellular disposition of the landscape is that it can evolve and grow as an organism without disrupting the continuity of the campus, permitting any future addition to be an integral part of the existing elements.

Architects in charge: B. Arch. Heriberto Hernández
M. Arch. Raúl Juárez
B. Arch. David Bercovici

Collaborators: M. Arch. Carlos Villasenor
B. Arch. Leticia Macías
S. Arch. Carlos Uribe
B. Arch. Rafael Canales
S. Arch. Klaus Hellemann

Scripting: TAL_Torres, Arenas, Loverich
Photographer: Heriberto Hernandez
Location: Ciudad Guzmán, Jalisco, México.
Area: 3,500
Design date: 2010
Costruction: 2010 – 2011


M.N.ROY by Emmanuel Picault and Ludwig Godefroy

A former house of a Mexican communist party founder M.N. Roy was put to a new use by the French architects Emmanuel Picault and Ludwig Godefroy. The new private club can be found in a Roma district of Mexico City, bearing the name of its original resident – M.N.ROY. From the outside, no difference can be seen, as if the true intent was to keep the club a secret. Pyramid shaped interior with a wooden texture offers a two-storey dancefloor and a DJ booth. The thick wooden blocks and glosy copper tiles cover the walls of other rooms, which are equipped with a massive wood and leather furniture.

The corridor walls are clad with black basalt tiles with a sophisticated lightning effect, highlighting its rugged texture. Black walls gradually narrow the space down and lead you to a dimly lit bar. The visitors are able to watch the dancefloors from a glass-fronted mezzanine. M.N.ROY is an incredible mix of cultures, volumes and architectonic styles creating a boiling point modern space.


Mourning House by Pascal Arquitectos

This is a project with very strong emotional implications. We had to understand the mood of the user, who at such this moment would not care very much for an aesthetical analisis of any place, but at the same time we wanted to create a space that can create a spritual mood, for this we refered to ancient buidings that were designed for this purpose, as the Egiptian “Mastabas” or some Mayan buildings in Palenque.

Religious rules and buildings codes in the Jewish Religion are very strict for this kind of places, and we were guided by several groups of Rabbies for this matter.

A project of this nature must encourage introspection and peaceful visual harmony through a discrete use of materials and lighting. The construction is located in a residential area and being planned as an isolated construction from the sorroundings, an indoor illuminated yard was built. The building façade is completely covered by Grissal flamed granite.

The building welcomes de visitor with a 6´4” wide and 30´ high triangular shaped wooden door which leads to an access tunnel in the same shape, creating a solemn atmosphere as you enter. This darkening experience at the entrance ends when the hallway opens to a large, double height granite hall illuminated by the northern light coming from the indoor courtyard with a tall Dracaena at the center and a symbolical abstract sculpture by artist Saul Kaminer as the only artwork piece for decoration.

No furniture was used inside this place,only a floating bench surrounding the room, that is made out of the same wood used in all the building. It also serves to hide al of the air conditioning, speakers and recesed lighting which adds a dramatical touch. This way the rooms shows no added ornament but the light and shades playing on the granite volumes.The ceiling is made of dark cumaru wood and floats without touching any wall and a skylight puts a highlight on this detail.


• November 2008 – IV SMI International Biennal of Interior and Landscape Design, Guadalajara 2008. Silver Medal Winners: Meditation House, Institutional – Religious Category. Honourable Mention for Nisha Lounge Bar Hospitality, Restaurants and Bars Category.

• August 2008 – X Biennal of Mexican Architecture Exhibition 2008. Silver Medal Winners: Meditation House (Religious buildings) and Honourable Mention for Nisha Lounge Bar (Interior Design and Visual Integration).

• May 2008 – IX Biennal of Architecture 2008, Costa Rica: “Retos y Desafíos del siglo XXI”. 2008 First Prize Winners with Meditation House.

• November 2007- Bienal Miami+Beach 2007. Architecture, Landscape Architecture, Interior Design. Silver Medal Winner, Public Buildings below 10,000 sq.feet, Meditation Chapel.

Architectural Project: Pascal Arquitectos, Carlos Pascal & Gerard Pascal
Construction: Arch. Rafael Salame
Project Date: 2006
Area: 262 m2
Address: Bosques de las Lomas, Mexico City
Photographer: Víctor Benítez


Endemico Resguardo Silvestre by Gracia Studio

The Endémico Resguardo Silvestre hotel complex comes from the works of the Gracia Studio atelier. It is composed by an aggregation of twenty individual rooms scattered along the slopes of Valle de Guadalupe in Mexico. Guests can enjoy panoramatic views of picturesque Mexican wineyards and the beautiful landscape around from each of the ecolofts. These 20 m2 sized units float above the rocky ground atop steel stilts, minimizing the hampering impact on the natural environment.

The ecolofts are clad in cortene steel, a material that ages into natural hues, blending into the land of the savannah. Each unit is strategically oriented in order to offer an unspoilt view of the valley and guests can also enjoy the privacy of their pleasantly furnished rooms. Each cabin boasts its own terrace with a fireplace that enriches the experience of comfort and relaxation in harmony with the nature. The whole comlpex stretches for almost 100 hectares and contains a nearby winery and a swimming pool.


Incubadora Social ITESM-BANCOMER by Shine Architecture

León de los Aldama is the sixth most populated city of Mexico. In its centre, the architects from SHINE Architecture finished a reconstruction of a house of social services. This building is supposed to serve as a base for talented students from low-income families and for people, who would like to improve their business skills. Patrons of the project are Tecnológico de Monterrey – one of the best higher-education institution in Mexico and Bancomer – one of the biggest banks in the country.

Architects wanted to bring a positive change with the face of the building to the area. The facade is made of wooden lattices, arranged in a functional, yet aesthetic way. Several parametric studies were concluded in order to achieve complex responsive morphology. For authors, it was important to include passive energy sources, in order for the building to be sustainable. They implemented mainly passive ventilation and sun shades.


TuboHotel – hotel in Mexico by T3arc

When the founders of the unique eco-cafe Cafe Five felt the need to offer their customers a novel form of affordable accommodation, they decided to create a hotel. Their main source of inspiration was the Desparkhotel in Linz, artwork of Andreas Strauss from 2006. The architects of T3arc atelier decided to create a similar piece on the outskirts of the mexican state Tepoztlán, on a lot with stunning panoramatic vistas with a view of the Sierra del Tepozteco mountains.

Verdant forestation and unique natural conditions of the location seemed ideal for the purpose. The goal for the project was fast execution and low costs, in order to create housing spaces for local tourists. In contrast to the Desparkhotel, the room units were stacked onto each other into 3-piece modules, in order to utilize the ground space effectively. The construction was completed in three months.

Ébano Bistró & Bar by Arquitectura en Proceso

Ébano Bistró & Bar was designed by Mexican architectural group Arquitectura en Proceso. Their aim was to transform a building into a bistro. This project is situated in the north of Mexico, in a small town of Delicias, Chihuahua. Agriculture, livestock, and vast deserts are main characteristics of the region. The exterior transformation of the building was marked by the existing roof which was in very poor condition.

It was necessary to build a new one but so as to affect as minimally as possible the existing steel structure of the building. The new roof created a new image of the complex. The building is wrapped into a micro-perforated skin which allows a glimpse of the silhouette of the old building and creates a double skin to regulate the intense heat of the area.A functional route separates the bistro area from the very simple work space.


PSJ Polyfunctional building

A Mexican company called AS/D have recently designed the PSJ building located at a shopping street in the city of Tlalnepantla, Mexico. The parcel of 900 square meters should be filled with commercial and office spaces. The building is composed of two main elements: a ground floor – a transparent volume that enhances an interaction between the interior and exterior and less transparent volume – the office floor. Vertical openings on the facade enable inflow of daylight to offices. Construction program was organised into three layers: underground parking enabling lightening and ventilation through elevated part, commercial spaces from 45 to 75 square meters organised around an inner atrium and a top floor that provides a space for up to 8 office spaces of different size, from 45 to 135 square meters. A gallery between the ground floor and top floor provides light to inner facades.